"Implications of Water Policy on Coastal Pollution: A Case Study of Mogadishu Coast "
DIRIE, Abdulrahman Mohamud
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In Somalia, fishery is the back bone of the country economy. In line with African Union Agenda 2063, SDGs and NDP program, MoFMR and SMRRC initiated different programs to develop different marine environments in Somali territorial water. Hence, those initiatives were supported by formulation new water resources policy and national environmental policy. Therefore, the general purpose of this study; is to assess and identify how the water policy, environmental policy and maritime code/law deal with coastal pollution and the effect of that pollution on Somali coast particularly Mogadishu coast to investigate the main cause of pollution. The study focused on evaluation of all pollutants which are existing in front of Somali coastal, assessment of the effect of pollution on Somali marine environments and investigate Policy implementation on coastal pollution for area under the investigation. Hence, three different locations were selected from different districts of the capital city of Mogadishu, namely Eastern slaughterhouse location of Kaaraan district; Liido beach location of Abdul-aziz district and Buurfuule location of Hamar wayne district. A total sample of 191 different stakeholders of marine environment were selected randomly and responded to the questionnaires. In addition, marine water was collected and analyzed in the period of 2019. This study was used mixed methods. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 21, to test the significance of the result. In addition, physico-chemical and biological apparatus were used for experimental analysis. Therefore, based on the result, the major source of the pollution was foreign ships (65%) which is external pollution, the foreign ships dump hazardous and nuclear wastes to Somali territorial water. Meantime, local and internal pollutants (26%) which is caused by coastal residents and Somali boats are part of the pollution causes. The most parameters who caused the pollution in the selected locations were chemical parameters (44%) including turbidity, TSS, BOD and COD. As well as biological parameters (42%) which includes total plate count and total coliform count. While the physical parameters in the normal level only 14%. The participation of the different stakeholders is not involved in the policy formulation and strategy plan which is related to marine issues. This study concluded most of the selected locations (L1&L3) exceeded the acceptable and recommended standards or levels of WHO and EPA, this is harm for the human health which may cause waterborne disease for the human as well as its effects on the marine organisms in those locations. As well as the policies related to marine issues are not updated and correspond the other policies in the region and even in the globe. Therefore, this study recommends to make and formulate an appropriate, strong and updated policy which can correspond with the other policies in the globe in order to prevent the local and foreign pollution to the Somali territorial water, to establish strong centers who can monitor and do an accountability what the foreign ships do in the Somali territorial water, to allow participation of the different stakeholders in the different processes of marine policy making in order to consider the policy their inputs, ideas and concerns and finally, to conduct a further study to examine the feasibility of coastal pollution situation in the selected locations, as well as the other locations around the capital city