Defeating Fluorosis in Rural Kenya Using the Kilimanjaro Concept: A Feasibility Study in Naivasha
Wagatua, Ruth Wambui
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The water in Lake Naivasha and the rainfall in the sub-county is enough to provide the whole population in the area with fluoride-free drinking and cooking water. Lake and rainwater can be blended with natural fluoride-contaminated waters in appropriate ratios to obtain safe and adequate water. The primary element of the study is to provide possible simple and sustainable non treatment options easily implementable in the rural areas that will enable management of the fluoride – water chemistry in a frugal manner in order to make universal safe drinking water provision in Naivasha a possibility especially since seemingly, groundwater will never cease to serve as a drinking and cooking water source. The research used a mixed research design applying both quantitative and qualitative methods where the data was collected via questionnaires and through observation. Each objective was analyzed using appropriate statistical tests. Experimental data was analyzed using both simple descriptive statistics, MS Excel and the Statistical Package for Social Sciences IBM version 21 for analysis. The total, mean, minimum and maximum values were used to assess the spread of the data. Frequencies, percentages and mean difference were used for analysis. After the data analysis, data was presented in the form of tables and figures with descriptive analysis explaining what was deduced. Interpretation of results was done in comparison to past findings and discussed, compared with existing literature on similar or related works. To cover for and nourish fluorosis affected communities, the findings reveal and suggest that, there’s a need to design a unique model that ensures pollution and water abstraction costs cast on the principles in place, towards Lake Naivasha, and collected in the form of revenues, as well as the water sector trust fund proceeds are ring-fenced to ensure the community benefits from it by construction of water treatment plants that serve the catchment community. There’s need for formulation of corporate accountability policies that will ensure the multimillion horticultural industry, conference tourism, fishing, and geothermal exploitation in Naivasha reflect on the thriving capacity of the local population in terms of safe water provision. Community social enterprises need to be empowered to take action towards ending Fluorosis in Naivasha and to be utilized as channels through which implementation of initiatives aimed at educating the people on water safety, capacity building and ensuring improved fluorosis eradication wisdom among the locals is made a reality. Households need to be trained on how to come up with home policies that ensure water safety.