Assessment of a Decentralized Grid Connected Photovoltaic (PV) / Wind / Biogas Hybrid Power System in Northern Nigeria
Jumare, Ismail Abubakar
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Electricity is considered a fundamental service which is highly correlated with sustainable development. Nigeria will serve as a case study that has been experiencing an energy deficit, and severely needs a strong adoption of alternative energy sources. This paper provides a detailed assessment of a grid-connected photovoltaic/wind/biogas hybrid energy system in the northern part of Nigeria using a combined Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER), Microsoft Excel, and Ganzleitliche Bilanz (GaBi) tools. They are based on techno-economic modeling and optimization as well as comparison with the same configuration in its off-grid form. Sensitivity analysis as well as an energy efficiency assessment of the proposed grid-connected system was carried out, followed by a supplementary economic benefit assessment of a system switch over and an evaluation of the impacts of life cycle emissions. A wrap-up reliability assessment based on the utility grid status quo and policy implications was also carried out. The results of the analysis for the grid-connected system showed a 3% increase in the overall energy supply, and a 68% and 85% decrease in net present costs (NPC) and levelized costs of energy (LCOE), respectively, with avoided emissions as compared to its comparable off-grid configuration. Moreover, the energy efficiency (EE) determined for the proposed grid-connected system resulted in a massive reduction in the component sizing, energy supply, and an ultimate 88% and 81% reduction in overall NPC and LCOE, respectively. The sensitivity analysis as well as the other supplementary evaluations indicated clear impacts on the different performance measures. This approach is worthy of adoption coupled with expansions for an effective solution to the energy deficit and its sustainability in the case study country. This could be successfully provided if all the reliability concerns for the utility grid and policy measures are addressed significantly.