Establishing Efficient Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning Framework of Transboundary Water Governance and Management, the Case of Tanganyika Lake Basin
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As water is in complex circulation, the consideration of the interactions between all types of waters — surface water, groundwater and return waters — is important for the management and protection of these shared resources. Appropriate transboundary water indicators were selected as guidelines to use for assessing joint management practices and enhancing the sustainability of the Lake based on literature review and the Lake Tanganyika Authority program documents. The study focuses on establishing efficient monitoring, evaluation and learning (MEL) system of transboundary water governance and management based on case studies targeted to the sustainability of the Lake Basin. The finding of the study indicates that sustainability of governance and management over shared water resources in the lake basin can be achieved in advancing collaborative and adaptive learning and research activities emerged from MEL tools. The MEL framework was achieved using a participatory and non-participatory approach and a semi-structured survey interviews through appropriate indicators, data, analysis, reporting models and continues assessments supported by the stakeholders and partner institutions in the basin. The study was conducted in Burundi where the Lake Tanganyika Authority, a program of the riparian countries was implemented with the function of coordinating all the activities related to Lake Tanganyika. Data was collected using a predesigned questionnaire and analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). A total of 27 respondents participated in the survey and seven experts in water management were interviewed. Three main study areas in the basin were selected for the survey: Bujumbura urban province, Bujumbura rural province and Rumonge province. The data analysis of the findings of the research shows the past and on-going projects on Tanganyika Lake have not achieved their level of sustainability due to problems associated with poor system of transboundary water cooperation and governance, inadequate public awareness and least emphases given to community participation in projects that affect the livelihood of the people. . The study highlights the status of the need of improving communication and reporting (35% neither satisfactory nor dissatisfactory), program monitoring and evaluation process (46 % neither satisfactory nor dissatisfactory) and institutional effectiveness (35 % good). Most interviewees highlighted the environmental pollution issues and non-protection of the upstream catchments as the main challenges to sustainability, whereas the weakness of implementing policies and laws on fisheries and water management, the ineffective institution & legislation, and the non-respect of the legal instruments were mentioned as the main challenges on Tanganyika Water governance and management. The existence of Lake Tanganyika Authority and the legislation regarding water governance and management were seen as the unexplored potential opportunities to improve the Lake Tanganyika water governance and management. Efficient implementation of the MEL framework leads to regional stability development, management of the shared water resources requires appropriate multilateral stakeholders relationships, and it stands on diversification of risks and sustainable development of the invaluable water resources.