Influence of Social Factors on Energy Recovery Options from Solid Waste Generated in Markets: A Case of Central Division of Kampala
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Sub-Saharan African cities have faced problems associated with poor Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) as well as inadequate electricity access. This has brought about several economic, social, environmental and health issues. The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW) is relatively high in developing countries as compared to the developed countries. The development and implementation of sustainable solid waste management system is a viable aspect when based on an integrated and holistic approach. Depending on the purpose of the waste treatment, nature and composition of the waste, there are several integrated systems such as; incineration, landfilling, gasification, recycling and anaerobic digestion technologies. Given the fact that MSW in Kampala city (Uganda) has over 73% organic fraction, this study aimed at determining the Influence of social factors on energy recovery options from solid waste generated in markets: a case of Central division of Kampala. It entailed comparative analysis of energy recovery technologies such as Gasification, Anaerobic digestion, Landfill gas recovery and incineration. The required primary and secondary data from the study areas of Nakasero market, Owino market and Usafi market were collected by use of survey questionnaires, face-to-face interviews, and through direct observation. The results were analysed using Kobo tookbox, and Superdecision software (MCDA, AHP). From collected data, the solid waste from the markets were mostly composed of 36.41% were plastics (bottles, polythene bags among other), 32.04% (spoilt fruit and vegetables), 31.55% peelings (cassava, potatoes, bananas among others). The technology evaluation, the Landfill gas recovery has the highest score of 0.3264 which makes it the most suitable technology option followed by Anaerobic digestion (0.2870), incineration (0.2480) is the third preferred option while Gasification has the least score (0.1384). This appropriate integration of technologies is expected to result into improved sustainability (economically, socially and environmentally) for the entire MSWM system, increase on the energy supply, reduction on the overall GHG emission from the waste, bio slurry for the urban farmers, several employment opportunities and evidence based decision and policy making. This study also further recommends that more emphasis is put in capacity building and sensitizing communities especially market vendors on the value and benefits of proper waste management including the 4Rs (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Rethink). Sensitization directly impacts of social wellbeing and behaviour of waste generators and handlers hence facilitating Energy Recovery process as well as enhancing Public Private Partnership.